1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Phragmites Adans.
      1. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Kenya, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial reed, with creeping rhizomes.
    Culms
    Culms erect, up to 10 m. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 30–80 cm. long and 12–40 mm. wide, glabrous, rough to the touch beneath (at least in upper half), the tips attenuate and stiff (occasionally almost smooth or with filiform tips).
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 30–50 cm. long and 10–20 cm. wide, the lowest node often many-branched in a whorl, the branches bare of spikelets for some distance from their base.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 9–12 mm. long, the rhachilla-hairs 4–7 mm. long, rather sparse; lower glume just over half as long as the upper; upper glume narrowly elliptic to very narrowly elliptic, 4–6 mm. long, acute to subacute; lowest lemma very narrowly elliptic, 7.5–12 mm. long; fertile lemmas very narrowly lanceolate, 8.5–11 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Stream sides, lake margins and swampy places; 300–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K7 U2 U4 extending through Ethiopia and the Sudan Republic into West AfricaPolynesia, northern Australia and tropical Asia
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    A rhizomatous perennial up to about 7 m. high
    Inflorescences
    Large plumose panicles
    Ecology
    Found near water.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; reed-like; 200-1000 cm long. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; 30-80 cm long; 12-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous; rough abaxially. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; hardened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; bearing juvenile spikelets at emergence. Panicle open; oblong; dense; 30-50 cm long; 10-20 cm wide. Primary panicle branches profusely divided; naked below. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5-1 mm long; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.5 length of lemma.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-11 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; 0.5-1 mm long; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.5 length of lemma.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture; gaping. Lower glume elliptic; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 4-6 mm long; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea; persisting on inflorescence. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to fertile lemma; elliptic; 7.5-12 mm long; 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8.5-11 mm long; membranous; without keel; 1-3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 0.66 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3 (2 in sterile floret). Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central.
    Reference
    Arundineae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Gulf of Guinea Is.

    Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3969], Thailand K000621690
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3969], Thailand K000621691
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7940], Thailand K000621692
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8925], Thailand K000621693
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19806], Thailand K000621694
    Sorensen, Th. [2026], Thailand K000682286
    Sorensen, Th. [2705], Thailand K000682287
    Sorensen, Th. [6079], Thailand K000682288
    van Beusekon, C.F. [4239], Thailand K000682289
    Schimper [1697], Ethiopia K000366968
    Clarke, C.B. [24714], West Bengal K000032476 Unknown type material
    Rabil [237], Thailand K000621695
    Rabil [237], Thailand K000621696
    Kurz, S. [775], West Bengal K000032475 Unknown type material
    Laegaard, S. [21777], Thailand K000682285
    Merrill, E.D. [319], Philippines K000290425
    Koenig, J.G. [s.n.], India K000859960 Unknown type material

    First published in Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Nom. Bot. ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 324 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0