1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Phragmites Adans.
      1. Phragmites japonicus Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Russian Far East to Korea, Japan to Nansei-shoto.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Stolons present (zigzag, nodes hirsute). Culms erect; reed-like; 100-200 cm long; 4-5 mm diam. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths loose. Ligule a ciliate membrane; 0.2-0.6 mm long. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate; 10-30 cm long; 20-30 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; bearing juvenile spikelets at emergence. Panicle open; oblong; dense; 20-30 cm long; 5-8 cm wide. Primary panicle branches profusely divided; naked below. Panicle axis puberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; 6-7 mm long; ciliate; with 1-2 mm long hairs.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.75 length of lemma.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 3-4 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus elongated; bearded; obtuse. Floret callus hairs 0.75 length of lemma.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture; gaping. Lower glume elliptic; 5 mm long; 0.5-0.6 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 5.5 mm long; 0.6-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea; persisting on inflorescence. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to fertile lemma; elliptic; 6-10 mm long; 1 length of fertile lemma; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 6-10 mm long; membranous; without keel; 1-3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3 (2 in sterile floret).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, China, and eastern Asia.
    Reference
    Arundineae. Fl China 2001.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Japan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Manchuria, Nansei-shoto, Primorye

    Phragmites japonicus Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 196 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0